TRANSMITTED ANIMAL DISEASES
Rabies is an acute disease,
caused by a virus (rhabdovirus), that can infect all warm-blooded animals, and is usually fatal. Certain carnivorous mammals and bats are the usual animal hosts. Rabies occurs throughout most of the world; only Australia and Antarctica are free of it. Most human cases have been contracted from rabies-infected dogs.
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Hantavirus includes a group of viruses
that can cause a febrile illness in humans which can be accompanied by kidney, blood, or respiratory ailments and can sometimes be fatal. The febrile illness includes fever, headache, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting, and lower back pain.
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Trichinosis may result in
diahrrea, sudden edema of the upper eyelids, photophobia, muscle soreness and pain, skin lesions, thirst, sweating, chills, and weakness. Other respiratory and neurological symptoms may appear if treatment is delayed.
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Encephalitis is a disease
caused by mosquito-borne viruses (arboviruses) that affect the central nervous system. Infections range from unapparent to mild, nonspecific illnesses (fever, headache, musculoskeletal pain, and malaise) to occasionally severe illness of the central nervous system resulting in permanent neurologic damage and possibly death.
Read more about Mosquito-borne Encephalitis
Plague is an acute disease
Murine Typhus Fever
caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis. Humans usually become infected by the bites of infected fleas but also directly from exposure to tissues or body fluids from diseased animals, especially when skinning animals.
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Murine typhus fever is caused
by Rickettsia typhi, a rickettsial organism that occurs throughout the southeastern and Gulf Coast states and southern California. Rats are the reservoir animals from which the disease reaches many humans by way of rat fleas.
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Rat-bite fever is caused
by the bacteria Streptobacillus moniliformis, which is found on the teeth and gums of rats. It is transferred from rats to humans by the bite of the rat.
Read more about Rat-bite Fever
The Salmonella group of bacteria
exists nearly everywhere in the environment and, unfortunately, several serotypes are pathogenic to humans and other animals. Salmonellosis can lead to severe cases of gastroenteritis (food poisoning), enteric fever septicemia (blood poisoning), and death.
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Leptospirosis is a mild to severe
infection that is seldom fatal. Human cases of the disease result from direct or indirect contact with infected urine of rodents and other animals.
Read more about Leptospirosis
Colorado Tick Fever
is a mild nonfatal disease resembling chicken pox.
Read more about Rickettsialpox
Colorado tick fever (CTF) is an acute
and rather benign disease caused by a virus (coltivirus) that is transmitted to humans by ticks. Symptoms are usually limited to high fever, headache, muscle aches, and lethargy, but the symptoms are frequently biphasic and recurring.
Read more about Colorado Tick Fever
Tularemia is caused by
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
the bacteria Francisella tularensis and is characterized by sudden onset of high fever and chills, joint and muscle pain, and prostration. Slow-healing sores or lesions develop at the site of entry of the bacteria (or arthropod bite).
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Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)
is a moderate to severe illness caused by a rickettsia (Rickettsia rickettsii). The disease is distinguished by a sudden onset of high fever, severe headache, muscle pain, and a red rash starting on the extremities about 3 to 6 days after onset of symptoms and extending to the palms of hands and soles of feet and then to the rest of the body.
Read more about Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Relapsing fever can be caused
by several Borrelia spirochete bacteria, which are related to the Lyme disease spirochete and are transmitted by soft ticks (Argasidae). Symptoms resemble Lyme disease except for the absence of the diagnostic rash and the presence of recurring fever.
Read more about Relapsing Fever
Lyme disease is caused by
Other Tick-borne Diseases
a spirochete bacterium (Borrelia burgdorferi) that is transmitted to humans by hard ticks. Early symptoms include a flu-like illness with headache, slight fever, muscle or joint pain, neck stiffness, swollen glands, jaw discomfort, and inflammation of the eye membranes.
Read more about Lyme Disease
Three other tick-borne diseases
occur in the United States. Human ehrlichiosis is a recently recognized disease caused by a rickettsia, Ehrlichia chaffeensis.
Read more about Other Tick-borne Diseases
Histoplasmosis is a respiratory disease
in humans caused by inhaling spores from the fungus Histoplasma capsula-tum. Birds do not spread the disease directly — spores are spread by the wind and the disease is contracted by inhalation.
Read more about Histoplasmosis
The Salmonella group
of bacteria can also be transmitted by birds. Refer to Commensal Rodent-borne Diseases (above) for additional information.
Read more about Salmonellosis
Ornithosis is an infectious respiratory disease
Other Bird-borne Diseases
caused by Chlamydia psittaci, a viruslike organism that affects humans, pets, and livestock. It usually leads to a mild pneumonia-or flu-like infection, but it can be a rapidly fatal disease (less than 1% of the cases reported in the United States).
Read more about Ornithosis
Pigeons, starlings, sparrows, blackbirds,
and other types of birds have been implicated in the transmission of various diseases of significance to humans or livestock. Starlings have been shown to be vectors of transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) of swine.
Read more about Other Bird-borne Diseases
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